Saturday, December 16, 2017

Romanced to Death: A Romantic Way to Die (2001), by Bill Crider

One reason I like reading mysteries is that from them I learn about subjects concerning which I often know, quite frankly, dismayingly little--all the while still getting to enjoy a nice little murder.  This is part of the reason I enjoy Golden Age greats like John Rhode and R. Austin Freeman.  I barely got through chemistry in high school and didn't dare dream of taking physics (it would have been more like a nightmare, actually); yet as an adult I came to hugely enjoy reading these two masters of the so-called "humdrum" mystery ingeniously apply science to deft  criminal devices in their baffling books. 

On the other hand, in college I minored in English and American literature and I don't so much share the fascination many vintage mystery fans have with the game of literary quotations that some GA mystery writers reveled to play. (I'm looking at you Dorothy Sayers and Michael Innes!)  Too much shop, I suppose.

Similarly, I majored in history, in fact received a PhD in American history and briefly taught it, but I'm not so fascinated by consciously "period" mystery either--unless we count as "period" mystery the mysteries written in the 20th century.  (I do have some exceptions too, like John Dickson Carr's brilliantly conceived The Devil in Velvet).

However, I greatly like small-town American  regional mystery, especially when set in New England or New England's historical antagonist, the Deep South.  I grew up in the Deep South myself (indeed, like Bill Crider, my father is from Texas, though a much different part of the state)--though it was the more homogenized suburban South of the Seventies and Eighties, which to a large extent actually resembled the rest of the country.  (Shocker!)

My Mother grew up in a small town (village, really) in the "Dutch" (i.e., Deutsche) region of Pennsylvania, another fascinating region, something to which I alluded in my introduction to the recently reprinted vintage mystery The Hex Murder.  Between 1930 and 2000, the population of my mother's home town grew by all of 39 people, from 637 to 676 (though there was a boom the decade after that, with the pop. going all the way up to 765).

I found that fascinating small-town environment as well in Atoka, Oklahoma, where GA crime writer Todd Downing grew up, and I wrote about this in Clues and Corpses, my book on Downing and his crime fiction reviews.

It's this same quality that I find and enjoy in Bill Crider's Sheriff Dan Rhodes mysteries, set in Clearview, Blacklin County, Texas, somewhere between Dallas and Houston in the southeastern (more traditionally southern) part of the state. 

The Crider books are cozies, I would say, complete with the sheriff's pet animals (there about have to be cats and/or dogs in a modern cozy, I contend); but what is distinct about them is the strong sense of place and the gently wry humor.  Also, I would argue, the books work better as puzzles than many modern cozies.  Bill Crider gives the satisfaction of actually providing the reader with, well, clues.  This is not something you always get from, say, MC Beaton.

One of my favorites in the Dan Rhodes series is 2001's A Romantic Way to Die, this in part because it deals with another foreign subject to me: the world of romance fiction. 

The late Robert Barnard, the son of a romance novel writer (his father, not his mother, his father having written under a pseudonym as I recall), bumped off a romance fiction queen three decades ago in his mystery Death in Purple Prose, but Bill Crider in his book takes out a local aspirant to that exalted status.

pecs front and center: romance cover model Jason Aaron Baca
(see below for more)

This violent death takes place at a writer's conference at another small Blacklin County town, Obert, an even more obscure community than Clearwater--though we learn that, on account of its hill, "the highest point between Houston and Dallas," the little town "had at one time been considered as a possible location for the Texas state capitol.

After losing out to victorious Austin, "Obert had sunk into an extended period of obscurity, its only claim to fame being the small private college, which had been founded shortly after the Civil War and had struggled along under the management of one denomination or another for nearly a hundred years before closing its doors forever in the early 1960s."

Old Main, Trinity University, Tehuacana
the inspiration, I believe, for the main setting of
A Romantic Way to Die (see below for more)

Readers of A Romantic Way to Die learn that a previous Dan Rhodes murder investigation (chronicled a decade earlier in Booked for a Hanging) involved the defunct Obert college--clearly an ill-starred place indeed! 

However, Tom Chatterton, a wealthy antiques dealer from Dallas, bought the college property and restored it to function as a conference center, with the romance fiction writers conference to be "just the first of many that Chatterton hoped to host on his rejuvenated property."  Oh, the best-laid plans! (Ha! A literary reference!)

The big draw at the conference is not organizer Vernell Lindsey, a local woman who has just published a successful romance novel, but the spectacular--or should I say pecstacular--Terry Don Coslin, another local success story.  A popular romance novel cover model with "rock-hard pecs," his great ambition is to become the new Fabio, getting on the cover of every historical romance novel published.

A Romantic Way to Die amusingly opens with Vernell and Terry Don doing a book signing at the mobbed local Wal-Mart.  Naturally Crider as an astute social observer has caught, in his distinctive and deceptively simple narrative voice, the impact, good and bad, that Wal-Marts have had on small towns:

Wal-Mart, Mexia

Sometimes it seemed to Sheriff Dan Rhodes as if the Wal-Mart were, in fact, the only store in town, and that half the population could be found there at any given hour.  Which wasn't too far from the truth, considering that the downtown section of Clearview had virtually disappeared over the course of the last few years.  Well, it hadn't disappeared so much as been abandoned.  And then some of the buildings had started falling down.  Rhodes didn't much like to drive through what was left of the downtown these days.

But as the downtown had crumbled, the area around the Wal-Mart had thrived.  There was a new restaurant called the Round-Up, a new car dealership, a Sears catalog-order and appliance store, a big grocery store, and even a McDonald's.  No wonder the parking lot was crowded.

When back in April I was spending a lot of time in Holly Springs, Mississippi, a lovely old southern town where my father was undergoing rehab, I saw at first hand some of the phenomenon Bill Crider describes in the above passage.  The local Wal-Mart was packed!  All. The. Time. Happily, however, the wonderful downtown area with its fabulous courthouse square still is very much alive and well.

at the romance fiction conference
someone suffers a fatal fall
from a high window
At Obert's romance fiction conference Terry Don--he of the rock hard pecs--is a rooster in a hen house, if you will. Soon claws are out and feathers are flying, much to Thomas Chatterton's mortification! Under the circumstances it's not so shocking when a woman is found dead from a blow to her head. Sheriff Dan has only started investigating this death when another conference participant falls--or is pushed--from one of the old main building's windows. 

Sheriff Dan and his deputy, Ruth Grady, had better get moving on this case quick, before someone else is bumped off at this deadliest of literary dos.  The pair finds that there is rather a lot of dirty laundry to sort though!

I've always assumed that Bill Crider's home town of Mexia, Limestone County, Texas, was the inspiration for Clearwater, but I'm certain that the tiny town of Tehuacana (pop. 283), in the same county, is the inspiration for Obert.  Tehuacana, like Obert, lost out in the battle to become capital of Texas. Afterward the town sank into obscurity, especially after it lost Trinity University, to which it was home between the school's founding in 1869 and its transfer to the town Waxahatchie in 1902.

The splendid old mansard-roofed, Second Empire main building of Trinity University, Tehuacana is still standing today and seems clearly to have been Bill Crider's inspiration for Obert's Old Main. I love a mystery with a strong sense of place, and Bill Crider's books always have that, A Romantic Way to Die being no exception.

The romance novel material is another plus for me.  Bill Crider is amusing in his take on this branch of fiction, without being condescending.  After all, he notes, the people who don't want to write romance novels, all seem to want to write mysteries.  To each her own when its comes to genre fiction, I say!

Jason Aaron Baca in the flesh
(though a rare shirt-on photo)
I learned a bit about the cover boy biz in A Romantic Way to Die.  Romantic fiction is directed almost entirely at straight women (though there is gay romantic fiction as well, much of it written, often mashed up with mystery, by the awesomely prolific Josh Lanyon, a contributor to the book Murder in the Closet); and in catching buyers' eyes the male cover model thereupon is much more important than the female cover model--this in stark contrast with the hard-boiled paperback fiction of the 1940s/50s. 

Just as those beautiful dolls on mid-century crime fiction paperbacks always seemed to be popping out of their dresses, the male lovelies on the covers of romantic fiction can't seem to keep their shirts buttoned (or even on, frequently).  Hence the need for those "rock hard pecs"!

It almost seems like Bill Crider anticipated the remarkable career of Jason Aaron Baca, who in 2017 passed Fabio as the model on the most romance novel covers--over 500 in the last decade!  That's a lot of romance for one mortal man. 

Originally not from Texas but California (though he does seem to frequently figure as shirtless southwestern cowboys on book covers), Baca broke into the cover model biz two decades ago, not long before A Romantic Way to Die was published, after he concluded, after being employed as a stunt double in the horror film I Know What You did Last Summer, that he would never make a successful actor.  Happily for him, he's been a fantastically successful cover model--indeed, the world's most successful cover model. (Sorry, Fabio!) 

Jason Aaron Baca is clearly the man Terry Don Coslin wanted so fervently to be in A Romantic Way to Die.  What happens to him and the other characters in this clever tale may not be romantic, but it sure is entertaining!  Read it and see for yourself.

In the novel, incidentally, the character of Thomas Chatterton always makes sure to remind people, almost always unnecessarily, that he is "no relation to the English poet," referencing the tragic 18th century youth of the same name.  You know who else drops Chatterton's name into one of his detective novels?  Michael Innes!  So, you see, Bill Crider is folksy yet literary too.  A man of parts, and the mystery world is richer for his three decades of crime writing.

See also my review of Bill Crider's A Mammoth Murder (2006).

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Living(ston) History 2 On the Mother's Side: A Trip to Merrie Olde England


friend of the family
the young Theodore Roosevelt
As in the case of crime writer Rufus King, who through his mother, Amelia Sarony Lambert King, was related to the Saronys, including Napoleon Sarony, the renowned 19th-century celebrity photographer, some of the most interesting relations of crime writer Armstrong Livingston are found on his mother's side of the family. 

While Livingston's wealthy and socially prominent paternal relations were comparatively easy to locate, however, his maternal ancestors offered more of a tangle. Much has been untangled, however.

Armstrong Livingston's father, criminal defense attorney and assemblyman Robert Armstrong Livingston, wed Florence Olivia Scott at St. Bartholmew's Episcopal Church in Manhattan in 1882; and Armstrong, the couple's only child, was born three years later.  Along with two other weddings performed that day, the lavish Livingston-Scott nuptials were given a sizable write-up in the New York Times society pages, under the the rather flaunting headline, "Three Fashionable Weddings [couples named]--Costly Presents.

Guests at the Livingston affair included Livingston's fellow assemblymen Theodore Roosevelt and Hamilton Fish II, who politically went on the bigger the things (the Presidency of the United States and the US House of Representatives; Fish was also the political "boss" of Putnam County, New York, whence Livingston came), as well as Stuyvesant Fish, future president of the Illinois Central Railroad, and William Kissam Vanderbilt, a grandson of the late Cornelius Vanderbilt and then the wealthiest man in America. 

Gilded wedding guests: Stuyvesant Fish House
at East 78th Street and Madison Avenue
The presence of all these swells kind of makes me feel sorry for the two other couples who also had their weddings take place that day!  Good heavens, was there enough society to go around?

Concerning family antecedents, the Times article states merely that Robert Armstrong Livingston's bride was the stepdaughter of the distinguished Dr. EW Ranney, who gave away the bride. (There were no bridesmaids present.) 

Dr. Ranney was Evander Willard Ranney, one of 13 children of Vermont farmer and country doctor Waitstill Randolph
Ranney
, a beloved figure in Vermont who had served in the state as lieutenant governor.  He had two other sons who became doctors in New York: Lafayette Ranney, who for many years was a city police surgeon, and James Ranney, who served several tears in the city as a coroner.

Evander Ranney was the second of three husbands of Armstrong Livingston's maternal grandmother, Olivia Griffith Hoyt (1835-1912).  More on Olivia in a bit; in the meantime, on to her first spouse!

The first husband of Olivia Griffith, as she was then known, was John Hanby Scott, a figure who remains rather nebulous, though I've sketched in quite a bit of his canvas. John Hanby Scott was born on September 23, 1828 in the Yorkshire (West Riding) city of Sheffield, England, and died prematurely at the age of 39 in Queens, New York on July 15, 1868. 

engraved handle of Sellers razor
John was the son of James Scott (1796-1870) and his first wife, Sarah Margaret Sellers (1798-1829). Sarah Sellers Scott having died when her only child was but a baby, James, I surmise, committed the boy to the care of relatives. 

These relatives possibly included John Sellers (1793-1855), a Sheffield manufacturer of pen-knife blades, surgical instruments, razors and engravers' plates and tools (see above).

Little more than a year after his first wife's death, James Scott wed Matilda Barton, who with her sister Mary, ran a "School for Educating Young Ladies" at imposing Highfield House in Wath-upon-Dearne, a town about 12 miles distant from Sheffield.  Mary Barton married at this time as well and left Highgate House, but Matilda, along with her husband James, a drawing master, maintained the establishment for the next four decades, until James' death. 

James Scott probably was the son of a wood carver and gilder from Grantham, Lincolnshire and he definitely was the nephew of Abraham Hanby of Bridgehoueses, Yorkshire (is this connected with the abandoned railway station in Sheffield?), for whom he partly named his son.  Not long before his own death in 1870 James erected in the cemetery as Wath-upon-Dearne a memorial stone in memory of both his uncle and his son, who of course had recently died abroad in New York.

Highfield House, Wath-upon-Dearne, Yorkshire, where
for four decades the maternal great-grandfather of
Armstrong Livingston and his second wife
ran a school for young ladies

In New York, John Hanby Scott was a merchant in Queens who with his family resided at 80 Jamaica Street, but beyond that I know nothing about the man's career.  Certainly his widow married well in her second husband, Dr. Ranney, as did his two daughters (at least monetarily), these being Armstrong Livingston's mother, Florence Olivia Scott (1862), and Armstrong's maternal aunt, Julia Hoyt Scott (1858-1936).

Two years before her sister, in 1880, Julia Hoyt Scott wed Captain Edward Arthur Johnson, of Thornhill House, Wath-upon-Dearne, the locale of Highfield House, her late Grandfather Scott's educational establishment for Victorian misses. 

Julia Hoyt Scott
(later Mrs.Edward Johnson
and later yet Countess Erdody)
Captain Johnson, "an officer in her Majesty's reserves," received a lavish write-up in the Times, which declared that he

is of an old English family, inheriting large wealth and a fine estate in Canisbrough, England [sic], upon which the pair will take up their residence after making a tour of the United States, and visiting Saratoga, Newport, and other Summer resorts.


The next year Julia and Edward were residing at the aforementioned Thornhill House, where Edward had followed in the professional path of his father, William Johnson: he was a wine and spirits merchant. 

Readers of the Times 1880 wedding account might have been forgiven for expecting the Johnsons to have been longtime quasi-feudal landowners, but such was the case!  Perhaps Florence's and Julia's merchant father, John Hanby Scott, had been a dealer in wine and spirits as well.

Unfortunately the marriage between Julia and Edward ended less than a decade later in divorce.  In 1892, however, Julia married into genuine nobility when she wed Jean Ladislas Louis Gilbert George, Count Erdody, of Gyepufuzes, Austria-Hungary (today Kohfidisch, in the state of Burgenland, Austria), where the Erdody family had long maintained "small palace," today called Schloss Kohfidisch.  Julia may not have found herself a prince, but she did catch a count, and she could finally say, without too much exaggeration, that she lived in a castle.

Which was appropriate enough, for her (and Armstrong Livingston's) ancestors were descended from French nobility, though admittedly of a rather quirky quality.  More on this soon.

schloss kohfidisch

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Living(ston) History: Frances Livingston Glover and her daughter, the unsinkable Susanna

Crime writer Armstrong Livingston dedicated his mystery novel The Monster in the Pool (1929)--to be reviewed here soon I hope--to his lone paternal aunt, Frances Livingston Glover, who, like other members of the author's father's side of the family, lived a life of considerable wealth and privilege.  Born in 1849, Frances Glover turned 80 in the year of the publication of The Monster in the Pool, suggesting that the book dedication may have been a sort of gift to the old woman from her 44-year-old nephew. 

Frances, one of two elder siblings to Armstrong Livingston's father, noted criminal defense attorney Robert Armstrong Livingston, wed wealthy insurance and real estate broker James Andrew Glover in 1888, three years after the future author's birth, and with Glover she had three daughters. After leaving prep school, Armstrong Livingston entered his uncles's business and resided for a time in the Glover's Manhattan household, which then consisted of his uncle and aunt, his three girl cousins and four Irish-born house servants (a cook, waitress, laundress and maid). 

The eldest Glover daughter, Susanna, made news in New York when she became a prominent survivor of the 1909 wreck of RMS Republic, the so-called "Millionaire's Ship" (on account of the large number of wealthy American passengers), which sank in the Atlantic off Nantucket after colliding in the fog with SS Florida. In stark contrast with RMS Titanic three years later, a distress call was quickly answered, resulting in the rescue of all 739 surviving passengers and crew.  (Three Republic passengers had been killed in the collision, along with three Florida crewmen.)

Republic and Florida collide

Young Susanna Glover, who had just made her debut at the age of 18 the previous year, distinguished herself during the calamity "by her self-possession," the New York Times reported at the time.  (Her passport photo application reported that her chin was "firm.") 

With the Republic sinking to the bottom of the ocean, its passengers and crew were transferred to the Florida, leaving this ship, which had its own complement of 900 Italian immigrants, dangerously overloaded.  Fortunately, RMS Baltic arrived to share some of the human burden.  During the transfer, however, a riot nearly broke out among the Italian immigrants when they were required to remain on Florida until the first-class passengers from Republic had been transferred.

Susanna Glover responded by taking matters firmly in hand.  When she left Florida for Baltic, she carried with her two Italian babies, one tucked under each of her arms.  It's something I would have liked to have seen!

The wreckage of Republic was located in 1981, not far from that of the better-remembered SS Andrea Doria.  Salvage operations have been made, rumors having long swirled that the Republican was loaded with Russian gold.

More coming soon on Armstrong Livingston's interesting maternal side of the family--the Anglo-French side.

Friday, December 8, 2017

Lavender Harvest: In Cold Blood (1931), by Armstrong Livingston

[Is he] [g]enerous?  Or just another millionaire?"

"Very generous.  He's paying all expenses, and even that didn't stop him from recommending [we stay in] the [swanky] Century Hotel in Prescott."

"Thank goodness!  This firm has needed a customer like that for some months/"  Mr. Hibbert's eyes took on a dreamy expression. "Only the other day I saw the most exquisite chinchilla wrap in a Fifth Avenue window, but I knew I had no more chance of getting it than if I'd been your wife."

"Tommy!" expostulated Denise in her soft warm voice.  She was properly scandalized.  "If somebody should hear you!"


                                                                *******

"Jimmy [said Tommy]--I'm going to like Prescott!"

"It's a queer place and it takes a queer person to like it."

"Thanks, dear heart!"


                                                                *******

The detective [Jimmy] glanced across the table almost fondly. 

"You're the greatest little vamp that ever dug for gold!  I'm sure I don't know why Matilda objects to kissing you, Tommy--there are moments when I feel like doing it myself!"

                                                               *******

"What can I do for you?" he asked dulcetly.

"You can show me some vice," said the lady simply....

"Vice?  You said--vice?"

"Yes.  Any form of depravity you may have on hand."


                                                            --In Cold Blood (1931), Armstrong Livingston

Jacket by the great Arthur J, Hawkins, Jr.
featuring both love letters and hairpin
Brutal murder in the American Midwest, in a tome entitled In Cold Blood?  I know what you're thinking, but before there was that scion of the Deep South, that marvel of Monroeville, Truman Capote, there was crime novelist Robert Armstrong Livingston, of the New York Livingstons, don't you know.

Among many other things, both good and bad, a member of the Livingston clan built Edgewater, a Greek Revival mansion overlooking the Hudson River that later became the abode for a time of Gore Vidal, who, as discussed previously on this blog and in an essay I wrote for Murder in the Closet (2017), briefly moonlighted in mystery fiction, under the pen name Egdar Box.

Oddly enough, the famous book that Armstrong Livingston's In Cold Blood really bears some resemblance to is Dashiell Hammett's bloody landmark mystery Red Harvest (1929), wherein a tough town is cleaned up (or perhaps more accurately wiped out) by an even tougher detective, the memorable Continental Op. 

To be sure, both Hammett and Livingston wrote for the American mystery pulps before turning to novels, but such different approaches the two men took to crime!  Nevertheless, while Hammett is hard-boiled and Livingston is light-hearted, their two novels, separated by just two years, seethe with civic corruption and bloody murder.

Livingston's favored series sleuth, private inquiry agent Jimmy Traynor, debuted in 1922 in The Mystery of the Twin Rubies, a highly classic tale that comes complete with country house and butler.  By 1931, when he solved the series of murders in violence-riddled Prescott, "that thriving but ever sinful city of mid-western America," in the novel In Cold Blood, Jimmy had acquired an entourage composed of a vivacious flapper-ish wife, Denise; an always game spinster aunt, Matilda Landry; and, last but most definitely not least in my view, Jimmy's remarkable transvestite assistant, Tommy Hibbert.

While in the novel Denise is first described as a "very pretty, dark-haired young woman" reading a book and Aunt Matilda as a "much older woman" doing her knitting, Tommy is detailed at greater length:

He was short and slender, very good-looking in a pink-and-white way, and although he was now in his twenty-fifth year no trace of down, much less anything so coarse as a hair, had come to mar the smoothness of his dimpled cheeks.  If in need of money--which he never was--he could readily have sold his likeness to one of those "a skin no razor should touch" advertisements.  His was not only the famous schoolgirl complexion, but a complexion such as lamentably few schoolgirls have.

Tommy's greatest passion is buying beautiful frocks and ravishing furs to gad about in (see the opening quotations to this piece).  In this passion he is indulged by his boss Jimmy, who seems to employ Tommy mainly to "vamp" male suspects.  And vamp Tommy does!  Verily, Tommy is the Queen of the Vamps, a true Duchess of Drag.

Camp sensibility is pronounced in the novel (again, see the opening quotations), and it is congruent with the so-called "pansy craze" that at the time of the novel's publication was still camping it up in sophisticated metropolitan centers in the United States and other countries at this time.  Explains Darryl W. Bullock in a 2017 Guardian article (linked above):

The 1920s saw an increase in the number of bohemian enclaves in rundown areas, such as New York's Greenwich Village.  Painters, poets and performers were lured by the cheap rents and by an increasingly wild and lawless lifestyle.  Prohibition had given birth to a black market for booze and a bustling underground scene, where bright young things slumming it in mob-run nightspots developed a taste for camp, cutting repartee.

LGBT people were flocking to cities as much for the nightlife as for the ability to connect with others.  Soon,
Variety was reporting that Broadway "will have night places with 'pansies' as the main draw.  Paris and Berlin have similar resorts, with the queers attracting the lays."  In Berlin, you could hear singers performing Das Lila Lied (The Lavender Song), one of the earliest songs to celebrate homosexuality.

During these years pansies and other queer characters also popped up in the pages of mainstream fiction, but Armstrong Livingston's Tommy Hibbert is the only drag detective from the Golden Age of mystery writing that of which I am aware. (Please chime in if you know otherwise.)

George Francis Paduzzi (1897-1947), aka Karyl Norman
Billed as the "Creole Fashion Plate," the smooth-cheeked entertainer
performed as a woman in nightclubs,wearing gorgeous gowns made by his mother.

To Tommy's vamping activity Livingston devotes a chapter, appropriately titled "Tommy the Vamp." Interestingly, when Tommy is decked out in his drag alter ego of Mrs. Clare Fontenoy, the author describes the exquisite creature as "she," even though we, the readers, know that deception is afoot:

As she stood back from the tall glass to survey every detail from the Nile-green slippers to the diamond ornament in her hair--bad taste, that, but she guessed Julian would admire it--she felt an artist's pride in the result.  She would have given anything if Jimmy had been there to gasp his amazement.

Was Armstrong Livingston ahead of his time, embracing the concept of "gender identity"?  Perhaps he was ahead of this time, even.

If these speculations strike some readers as too high-falutin', we can always scrutinize In Cold Blood as a mystery story, of course!  While the novel is most distinguished by its naughty good humor amid mayhem and murder, there is genuine detection--along with an intuitive leap on the part of Jimmy that goes a bit too far, for my taste!

In New York Jimmy is hired by the visiting Hannibal Partridge, the Prescott multimillionaire, to get his "youngest and only living child," Jessica Partridge (I enjoyed this euphonious mashup of icons Jessica Fletcher and Shirley Partridge), out of a jam.  Although she has not been arrested, Miss Partridge is suspected by Prescott authorities and citizens alike (including even her boyfriend, it seems) of having committed double murders in their fair burg: firstly, that of thirtyish man-about-town and thorough "bad egg" Meredith Chambers (skull bashed with poker) and secondly, duplicitous French lady's maid (is there another kind in American and British crime fiction?) Marie Durant (stabbed between ribs).

Partridge wants to get the stain of suspicion removed from his impulsive daughter once and for all. Factors complicating Jimmy's investigation are a packet of incriminating love letters, turned into instruments of blackmail; a dropped hairpin (what mystery maven Carolyn Wells called a "gravity clue"); and, of course, corruption at the highest levels of local and state government.  Prescott is a real Sin City, as Jimmy points out when he gives his Denise and Aunt Matilda a driving tour of its criminal districts, which apparently encompass the entire metropolis:

Squalid area this, by the station.  Now we're running up Fenimore Street--remember the Fenimore Arms murder, Aunty?  Here's Jalep Avenue, where Squint-Eye Solomon got his throat cut.  Here's Jereboam Street--I forget just what happened there, but it was quite unpleasant....Bay Street--you recall the Bay Street Siege, Denise, when they had to turn out the militia and dynamite the house in which six gangsters with a machine-gun had taken refuge?  Cooper Avenue, where they had that pitched battle between two rival gangs a month ago.  Ah--now we're coming to the better districts!  On your left is Canterbury Street, where that society debutante lived who garroted her mother because the old lady had alienated the affections of the daughter's boy-friend.

Jimmy's comparison between Prescott's squalid and better districts is rather amusing, I think.  You would almost get the impression that the good old U. S. of A. has had something of a history of violence.

Just another day in the big city?
St. Valentine's Day Massacre, Chicago, February 14, 1929

Monday, December 4, 2017

Mr. Livingston, I Presume? Armstrong Livingston (1885-1948) and the Murder Racket

Once in the middle twenties I was driving along the High Corniche Road through the twilight with the whole French Riviera twinkling on the sea below.   As far ahead as I could see was Monte Carlo and though it was out of season and there were no Grand Dukes left to gamble, and E. Phillips Oppenheim was a fat, industrious man in my hotel, who lived in a bathrobe--the very name was so incorrigibly enchanting that I could only stop the car and like the Chinese whisper "Ah me! Ah me!"

                                              --from "Early Success" (1937), by F. Scott Fitzgerald

From Monte Carlo in 1930 crime writer Armstrong Livingston inscribed a copy of his 1929 mystery The Monster in the Pool to Peryl B. Magill (1889-1983), a southern California osteopathic physician and daughter of prominent Orange County rancher and Civil War veteran Cyrus Newton Magill. He bestowed "all good wishes" upon Dr. Magill and "a Merry Christmas" unto her younger sister, Julia.

Pasted into the book, presumably by the author himself, is a photo of Livingston at table, newspapers spread out before him.  The Paris Herald Tribune, mainstay of American expatriates in Continental Europe, is most prominently displayed.

Although an expat himself, Livingston set most of the mysteries with which I am familiar--most of which appeared at the height of the Jazz Age and are of the "Murder? What fun!" school associated with A. A. Milne's The Red House Mystery (1922) and Agatha Christie's fizzy Tommy and Tuppence thrillers--in the United States. 

By the depressed 1930s, however, Livingston's writing career, like that of the admittedly more high-toned F. Scott Fitzgerald, had taken a downward turn, with only a few more novels by him ever appearing in print.  By the time of his death, on February 7, 1948, when he was only 62, his occupation was given as "retired author."

Golden Age authors of "classic"crime fiction in both the US and UK often have been derided as hoity-toity, and admittedly mystery authors in terms of family background do not come much hoitier or toitier than Robert Armstrong Livingston, who wrote crime fiction simply as Armstrong Livingston. 

Like the great vintage crime writer Rufus King, much beloved and blogged about at The Passing Tramp (as longtime readers of this blog will know), vintage crime writer Robert Armstrong Livingston, or "Ray" as he was known to family and intimate friends (possibly for his initials RA), came out of the top drawer of New York society--though within Livingston's particular drawer were representatives of the most prominent of old New York families imaginable. 

"The Nephew"
Robert Livingston the Younger
Ray was a gr-gr-gr-gr-gr-grandson of Robert Livingston the Younger, colonial merchant, mayor of Albany, New York and a nephew (in fact he was known as The Nephew) of Robert Livingston the Elder, owner of 160,000 acres of land along the Hudson River and the first "lord" of Livingston Manor. Through The Nephew Ray was related not only to Livingstons, of course, but additionally to such big-wigged families as the Roosevelts, Schuylers, Beekmans, Stuyvesants, Fishes, Van Rensselaers and Ten Broecks.

Ray's own father, the attorney Robert Armstrong Livingston, Sr., was praised in the snooty History of Putnam County, New York, in the sort of effusive terms one often sees in Golden Age detective fiction of the stodgier sort:

Though still a young man, his ample wealth, high social standing, and remarkable ability as a jurist have won for him a popularity and a position in the county, which are hardly equaled by any.

In these (putatively) democratic days, we at least like to appear less nakedky admiring in our praise of "ample wealth" and "high social standing" per se.  Yet it certainly appears that Robert A. Livingston was not only wealthy and socially prominent but exceedingly able in his chosen profession of the law.

the author's distinguished
(and socially prominent!)
attorney father
Among the interesting criminal cases where Robert A. Livingston mounted successful defenses, securing acquittals for his clients, was that of Alexander Armstrong, a longtime African-American servant of Robert's prominent kinsman Cambridge Livingston.

Alexander Armstrong stood accused of arson in the first degree, its having been established that he had repeatedly threatened to burn down the tenement in which he lived. A visiting African-American minister and his wife had testified that during their visit Armstrong had thrown a lamp at the ceiling, starting a conflagration in his room.

Livingston was able to establish, however, that the clergyman had served time in Sing Sing Prison for assault and that on the night in question he and his wife had physically attacked the accused, during which scuffle the lamp had been upset, with a fiery result.

A considerably better-known case with which Livingston became involved was his defense of railway brakeman George Melius, who had been charged with manslaughter in the fourth degree over the January (Friday the 13th) 1882 Spuyten Duyvil train disaster, in which eight people lost their lives in a train collision and devouring fire that took place in the dead of winter near the aptly named Spuyten Devil (Spouting Devil) Creek in the Bronx.

These fatalities included newlyweds Mr. and Mrs. Park Valentine (the husband was the eldest son of Bennington, Vermont mill owner and Civil War hero Alonzo Valentine) and influential New York state assemblyman Webster Wagner.  (A number of the passengers on the train were legislators returning to New York City after the closing of the legislative term.)

This trial was a famous one in its day, in part on account of the social prominence (that term again!) of the victims and in part because of the horrific accounts regaled in the newspapers and newfangled picture magazines of the deaths of the victims, most of whom had been burnt alive.  Of Mr. and Mrs. Valentine, who were only 21 and 19 at the time of their tragic demise, one terrible account, published in the popular Illustrated American, noted that the

young wife was perfectly free when her charred remains were discovered, and could easily have escaped from the burning car.  But she would not leave her husband, who was caught by the debris, and, clinging to him, she died with him.  They were found clasped in each other's arms, those arms being burnt to a crisp.

Of Senator Wagner, the same account lamented what

horrible agonies he must have suffered before death released him--how fearfully he must have writhed with pain.  The body was like the trunk of  a charred tree; the arms were almost gone; the head was a calcined lump.

Senator Wagner was identified in part by his intact gold watch, which bore the initials "W. W."  Being a jaded mystery reader I'm reminded of all those Golden Age detective novels involving devious tricks performed with burnt bodies--see for example Freeman Wills Crofts's 1927 Inspector French and the Starvel Tragedy--but this was a real human tragedy, of course, not a fictional puzzle problem.

artistic rendering of the attempt to save victims of the Spuyten Duyvil railway clamity

It was poignantly reported that onlookers had rushed to the scene of the burning cars on that dark wintry night rolling snowballs, in a desperate effort to put out the flames--no firefighters having yet arrived.  A frivolous children's playtime activity became a heroic act of rescue.  It seems fortunate under the circumstances that so few passengers actually perished.

Robert A. Livingston had been advised that the defense of the hapless brakeman George Melius was a hopeless one, yet in fact his arguments secured Melius' acquittal by the persuaded jury.  The implication in the decision was that the brakeman had been made a scapegoat for the railway company.  As the account in The Illustrated American explains

[a]lthough everyone felt that, but for the wretched parsimony of the company in heating the car with stoves, the train would not have caught fire and the majority of the lives saved, the company escaped scot-free.

It was the Gilded Age, after all!

Reflecting his social standing, Robert A. Livingston was a Republican and Episcopalian.  He twice served in the State Assembly and was a serious contender for the Speakership.  His death in 1913 before he had completed six decades of life no doubt foreshortened a most accomplished legal and political career.

His son, Robert A. Livingston, Jr., or Ray, the future crime writer, was but 27 when his father expired, having been born to Livingston pere and his wife, Florence Olivia Scott of Ravenswood, Queens, on August 16, 1885. 

Only a couple of years prior to his father's death, Ray Livingston had married Gladys Patten Glover, daughter of John Milton and Catherine Augusta (Patten) Glover, a Missouri congressman and his heiress wife.  Augusta Patten was one of five daughters of Irish Catholic Washington, DC society matron Anastasia Patten, widow of California Gold Rush millionaire Edmund Patten. 

Anastasia's daughter Augusta's 1887 marriage to John Milton Glover, though disapproved of by her sisters, who considered Glover an unsuitable match, was breathlessly heralded as the "most brilliant private social event of the season in this city, when the wealth, social position and surroundings of the parties are considered...."  The bride's doting mother was said to have presented the newlyweds with $100,000 as a wedding gift.

The Moorings, Bermuda
see My Bermuda Postcards

A Republican and Episcopalian like his father, Ray Livingston had been educated at St. George's School in Newport, Rhode Island, where his parents had another home (it seems that while Gladys enjoyed summering in Newport, Robert liked fishing in Maine), after which he entered the insurance, and later the brokerage, business.

Four years after his marriage to Gladys, however, the couple departed to the Atlantic island of Bermuda (previous to this time they lived in Woodmere, Long Island), where during the war years they resided at a house called "The Moorings" and Ray began writing pulp crime fiction.

Future crime writer Armstrong Livingston attended
St. George's prep school, near Newport, Rhode Island

For the first half of the 1920s the couple lived in Algiers, but by 1926 Ray and Gladys presumably had divorced, for that year in Manhattan Ray wed Ruth Stevens Dorr.  In 1930 he was living in Monaco, but by 1942 he was back in Manhattan, seemingly single and retired.  He died six years later and was buried in the historic Greenwood cemetery in Brooklyn, the final resting place of many of his ancestors and more distant relations.

I plan to say more about Livingston's crime fiction in a future post, but for now I will simply list his known crime novels.

The Mystery of the Twin Rubies (1922)
On the Right Wrists (1925)
The Ju-Ju Man (1926) (with Thomas K. Griffiths)
Light-Fingered Ladies (1927)
The Guilty Accuser (1928)
The Monk of Hambleton (1928) (review by TomCat)
The Doublecross (1929)
The Monster in the Pool (1929)
Trackless Death (1929)
The Murder Trap (1930)
In Cold Blood (1931)
Murder Is Easy (1933)
Magic for Murder (1936)
Night of Crime (1938)|
The Murdered and the Missing (1947; nonfiction) (with John G. Stein)

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Blast from the Past I: The British Golden Age of Detection's Deposed Crime Kings

            The essay of some 7500 words that follows below was originally written by me in 2011 and published that same year in CADS 60 (Crime and Detective Stories).  It seemed to make a strong impression at the time (see, for example, Martin Edwards, "CADS and Curt Evans"), though perhaps it may strike some today as unnecessarily tendentious on the gender issue.  I regret this if so, for, as I hope any reader of my blog will appreciate, I am a great admirer of crime fiction by women authors, including the Golden Age Crime Queens Agatha Christie, Dorothy L. Sayers, Margery Allingham and Ngaio Marsh. 
            Consider that six years ago I was trying to place a book, Masters of the "Humdrum" Mystery, about the Golden Age crime writers Freeman Wills Crofts, Cecil John Charles Street (John Street/Miles Burton and Alfred Walter Stewart (JJ Connington), and repeatedly being told that there would be no interest, either popular or academic, about "forgotten" British Golden Age mystery writers who were not "Crime Queens."  
Oh, how things have changed in six years!
             Although I fear this essay has since been greatly overshadowed (perhaps irrevocably) by other books by other people, perhaps it will be of some interest to my blog readers who never saw it in CADS. (You might even notice a reference to a certain John Strachey and "The Golden Age of English Detection.") Happily, Masters of the "Humdrum" Mystery was published, back in 2012.  Now on to our deposed Crime Kings.

     
            In the introduction to a recent academic study of “largely forgotten” nineteenth-century women writers of crime fiction,[1] the prominent British crime novelist Val McDermid noted in passing: “And, of course, whenever the so-called Golden Age of detective fiction is mentioned, the names associated with it are female — Agatha Christie, Dorothy L. Sayers, Margery Allingham, Ngaio Marsh.”  Critic Sarah Weinman illustrated Val McDermid’s contention in the January 29, 2011 “Reputations” column of the Wall Street Journal, in an article about Golden Age detective novelist Margery Allingham, wherein Weinman declared: “Four ‘queens of crime’ dominated the Golden Age of the mystery novel, the years just before and after World War II: Agatha Christie ... Dorothy Sayers ... Ngaio Marsh ... and Margery Allingham.”
            Examples abound of this insistently gendered approach to mystery genre history, by which the numerous works produced by a vast multitude of men and women during the Golden Age of the British detective novel are distilled into the product of four celebrated “Crime Queens.” One academic authority, for example, asserts that the Golden Age of British detection is “commonly conceived” as having run from “the first novel of Agatha Christie (1920) to the last novel by Dorothy L. Sayers (1937),”[2] while another writes that the Golden Age “is generally thought of as a period during which detective fiction became feminized.”[3] A third authority, insisting that the “best-selling and most critically acclaimed British mystery authors of the 1920s and 1930s were disproportionately women”, compares British mystery writing to such other “feminine” occupations of the era as teaching and nursing.[4]  Given this emphasis by academics and literary critics, perhaps we should not be surprised that the widely-reviewed Talking about Detective Fiction,[5] the short 2009 detective fiction survey by modern-day British “Crime Queen” P. D. James, allots the lioness’s share of its discussion of the Golden Age in Britain to those same four Crime Queens: Christie — you know the drill by now, surely — Sayers, Allingham and Marsh.
            While Golden Age British detective fiction is seen today as a feminine demesne and treated accordingly in many critical works, American detective fiction from the period between World War One and World War Two, on the other hand, tends to be viewed as masculine, devoted mostly to action-oriented tales of the violent, booze- and bimbo-filled doings of tough private eyes, where resolutions to mysteries are reached more through the use of fists than of the little grey cells much boasted of by Agatha Christie’s famed detective Hercule Poirot.
            Just as the Crime Queens are seen as dominating Britain’s Golden Age, two hardboiled American detective novelists, Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, are seen as mastering the same span of years in the United States. P.D. James deems the differences in between-the-wars American and British detective fiction to be “so profound” that she finds it “stretching a definition to describe both groups under the same category.”
            Yet are critics really right here? Can we so simply reduce the works of the Golden Age of detective fiction in Britain to the efforts of four genteel women and the mysteries of the same era in the United States to the tough tales penned by a pair of hardened men? In my view the answer is absolutely not. Far from being illuminating, such a treatment is actually obscuring.
            Although the misrepresentation of American Golden Age mystery needs to be taken on as well, in this article I deal with the way the gendering of Golden Age detective fiction has yielded an inaccurate picture of the Golden Age in Britain by effectively deposing many of the era’s “Crime Kings”.
            The term “Golden Age” in reference to the English detective novel to my knowledge was first coined in a 1939 Saturday Review of Literature article, “The Golden Age of English Detection”, by John Strachey. Though Strachey viewed this “Golden Age” as existing in the present, the term was adopted two years later by Howard Haycraft in his influential mystery genre survey, Murder for Pleasure (1941), to cover the years 1918 to 1930. Other bookending years have been suggested since, but most commonly the term Golden Age has been taken to apply to the years 1920 to 1939.
            Did the four Crime Queens in fact dominate the two decades of the 1920s and 1930s? Let us look at the chronology of their writing careers in this period, in comparison with other British mystery writers of the time.

Agatha Christie (1890–1976)
           
            Agatha Christie, who admittedly eventually became a remarkable publishing phenomenon, did indeed publish her first detective novel in 1920. To credit this novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles, with exclusive birthing of the Golden Age goes too far however. Also first appearing in 1920 was another detective novel, The Cask (written by Freeman Wills Crofts; see below), that deserves as much or more credit as Christie’s tale does. Today it seems to be forgotten that as a crime writer Agatha Christie actually was quite an inconsistent producer in the 1920s. Christie undeniably had become a Queen of Crime by the 1930s, but in the 1920s she was more a pretender of uncertain lineage.                      
            Of the nine mystery novels Agatha Christie published between 1920 and 1929, only five involved her greatest creation, Hercule Poirot, while the rest were rather loosely plotted thrillers populated by the evil criminal masterminds and gangs more associated with such hugely popular (though critically derided) thriller writers of the time as Edgar Wallace (“It is impossible not to be thrilled by Edgar Wallace!” shrieked the publisher’s tag line), “Sapper” (Bulldog Drummond creator H. C. McNeile) and Sax Rohmer (creator of the diabolical “Oriental” crime fiend, Dr. Fu Manchu). Indeed, even one of the Poirot novels from the 1920s, The Big Four (1927) — stitched together as a novel (from earlier published stories) after the scandal of Christie’s apparent nervous breakdown and disappearance upon her husband’s revelation of his infidelity and his desire for a divorce — is a thriller, a farrago of Edgar Wallace, Sapper and Sax Rohmer devices that a shamefaced Christie herself later referred to as “that rotten book”.
            Agatha Christie achieved her greatest fame in the decade of the twenties not only for her 1926 disappearance, which became a brief newspaper sensation, but also for the Poirot detective novel she published the same year, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd. This justly admired murder tale boasted a notorious solution that was effusively praised as brilliant by some critics and simultaneously denounced as unfair by others (there is an obviously apocryphal story that Christie was threatened with expulsion from the Detection Club — an organization of the finest English detective novelists — and only saved by the intercession of, naturally, Dorothy L. Sayers; obviously apocryphal because the Detection Club was not formed until 1930). But even after the appearance of Roger Ackroyd, Christie was viewed as something of a one-hit wonder until a glittering succession of first-grade Poirot detective novels accumulated in the 1930s (such as Peril at End House, Lord Edgware Dies, Murder on the Orient Express, Death in the Clouds and The ABC Murders).               
            Arguably even as late as the early thirties, more detective fiction fans might well have named another author besides Agatha Christie — Dorothy L. Sayers, say, or even that man Freeman Wills Crofts — as the best detective fiction novelist.

Dorothy L. Sayers (1893–1957)
           
            Dorothy L. Sayers followed Agatha Christie and Freeman Wills Crofts into print as a mystery novelist by three years, with the publication of Whose Body? (1923), a bubbly tale that introduced her insouciant, aristocratic amateur detective, Lord Peter Wimsey. Four Lord Peter detective novels and a short story collection appeared in the 1920s, and as a fictional detective Wimsey immediately won attention, pro and con (Dashiell Hammett seems to have been an early initial detractor, writing rather sourly in his review of Sayers’s 1928 short story collection, Lord Peter Views the Body: “Readers whom Lord Peter Wimsey amuses will find the book to their taste; most of the stories are slightly enough plotted to leave him plenty of room for his flippancies”).[6] However, Sayers’s ascent to the top of the British crime fiction world really began with a series of incisive and influential critical essays on the mystery genre that the Oxford graduate penned in the late 1920s and early 1930s and with her launching in the Lord Peter tales of the celebrated (and occasionally derided) Harriet Vane saga.
            In Strong Poison (1930), the formerly flippant Lord Peter falls shatteringly in love with brilliant mystery author (and Sayers ego projection) Harriet Vane, on trial for her life for the murder of her lover. Peter saves Harriet by finding the true murderer, but he takes two more novels to successfully woo and win her (several Sayers detective novels without Harriet also appeared in this period, including the highly praised church and village tale, The Nine Tailors). The third novel in the Harriet Vane saga, Gaudy Night, which in addition to resolving the Peter and Harriet romance concerns the question of higher education for women, does not even involve a murder (though there is a mystery). Both Gaudy Night and Sayers’s last completed detective novel, Busman’s Honeymoon (1937), approached being mainstream novels and were big sellers on both sides of the Atlantic. Sayers became a much-discussed name in literary journals, where it was hotly debated whether the Crime Queen had achieved her goal of transforming the detective novel into literature and whether such a goal even was a desirable one. Sayers soon after retired from crime writing at the height of her critical and financial success as a mystery novelist, in order to devote herself to writing religious dramas, essays, and a translation of Dante. When she did so she was unquestionably a Queen of Crime who had voluntarily relinquished her bloodstained sceptre.

Margery Allingham (1904–1966)
           
            If Agatha Christie and Dorothy L. Sayers were not fully established as Crime Queens until the 1930s, what of Margery Allingham and Ngaio Marsh? Margery Allingham did not publish her first mystery novel until 1928; her aristocratic series detective, Albert Campion, appeared the next year, in The Crime at Black Dudley. Despite the appearance of Campion, thrillers predominated in Allingham’s output until the 1934 publication of Death of a Ghost, a sophisticated tale of murder in the art world. The main Campion mysteries that followed in the 1930s — Flowers for the Judge (1936), Dancers in Mourning (1937) and The Fashion in Shrouds (1938) — dealt with similarly sophisticated milieus (publishing, musical comedy, fashion design) and met with increasing praise as crime tales following down Sayers’s “novel of manners” path. Certainly by the end of the Golden Age Margery Allingham could be said to have ascended to her throne as a Crime Queen.

Ngaio Marsh (1895–1982)
            Among the four Golden Age Queens of Crime, Ngaio Marsh had the tardiest coronation. Marsh, a native New Zealander, did not publish her first crime tale, A Man Lay Dead, until 1934. A conventional country house tale, this inaugural mystery was deemed a poor thing by the author herself (“a man laid egg” she later called it). It was not until the 1938 to 1941 period, with the introduction of sophisticated settings and a Harriet Vane-like love interest (the brilliant artist Agatha Troy), that Marsh made a serious claim to the Crime Queen’s royal mantle (in earlier years some reviewers assumed she was a man). In Artists in Crime and Death in a White Tie, both from 1938, Marsh’s handsome, impeccably mannered, well-born detective, Roderick Alleyn, met, wooed and won “Troy”, as she was called; while in 1941 Marsh produced her most highly-regarded detective novel (even today), Surfeit of Lampreys, a sparkling comedy of manners about a charming family living in genteel poverty that has to confront murder in its midst.

            Thus by 1941 it certainly could be fairly said that four Crime Queens ruled over the world of fictional British murder (even though one had stepped down from her throne to seek other creative fields to conquer). Their grip on power was strengthened with the paperback publishing revolution that began during and accelerated following World War Two. In 1949–50, for example, paperback giant Penguin reprinted ten works each by Christie, Allingham and Marsh (who were all still actively writing mysteries), in editions of 100,000 copies a title — a million total for each author. All four of the Crime Queens have remained in print in paperback every decade since, while contrastingly most of their male Golden Age contemporaries languished after their deaths.
             Not surprisingly, then, the idea of four Crime Queens has cemented and solidified over the last sixty years. But to some extent this is chronologically ahistorical, as indicated above. Not until the very tail end of the Golden Age or even just after, in the period from about 1938–1941, can all four Crime Queens truly have been said to have risen to dominance over the world of British crime fiction. Even Christie and Sayers, who appeared earlier on the mystery scene, in 1920 and 1923 respectively, really only began to tower over most of their male contemporaries in the 1930s, say 1930 to 1935.
             So, strictly speaking, it is not accurate to suggest that the four Crime Queens dominated the entire Golden Age (normally understood, as stated above, as the years 1920 to 1939 or thereabouts). Perhaps this is why Sarah Weinman, in the Wall Street Journal article noted above, reimagines the Golden Age as “the years just before and after World War II.” While this declaration is imprecise, it suggests to me the years of 1938 to 1946 (interpreted narrowly) or perhaps those of 1935 to 1949 (interpreted broadly). But even under the more generous construction, we lose fifteen years of the span traditionally thought of as constituting the Golden Age. Sarah Weinman thus seems to have taken the logical final step in the apotheosis of the Crime Queens by reconstructing the Golden Age entirely around them. In this construction the Crime Queens by definition dominated the Golden Age, because the Golden Age is now defined as those years when the Crime Queens dominated British crime fiction.
            To say such a construction is a circular one is to state the obvious. However, this chronological sleight-of-hand is necessary if one wants to be able to accurately claim that the Crime Queens dominated the entire Golden Age of British detection, because the Golden Age, as traditionally defined (1920–1939), simply was not the murderous matriarchy envisioned by so many modern-day academics and critics (as well as the readers these academics and critics have influenced).
             Who were the men — the ousted men — of the Golden Age of the British detective novel? To be sure, some British male Golden Age detective novelists — E. C. Bentley (forerunner of the Golden Age with his Trent’s Last Case, 1913, and author of an additional detective novel, co-written with Warner Allen, Trent’s Own Case, within it); A.A. Milne (Winnie-the-Pooh creator and author of a single mystery tale); H. C. Bailey (best known as the creator of that sweets-loving protector and avenger of wronged innocents, Reggie Fortune); Ronald Knox (more known for his “Rules” for the writing of detective fiction than for his detective fiction);[7] Philip Macdonald (author of more sensationalistic detective fiction); Anthony Berkeley/Francis Iles (often seen as the greatest British progenitor of the psychological crime novel); John Dickson Carr (the master of the “locked room” mystery, he was actually born in the United States but is associated with British mystery by reason of his long residence in England and also because of the English settings of most of his Golden Age tales); Michael Innes (strongly associated with the “donnish detection” school); Nicholas Blake (real life poet C. Day Lewis); and Cyril Hare (a British judge) — have not been quite so forgotten, although they have received nothing remotely like the attention the Crime Queens have. John Dickson Carr, for example, was quite popular and admired in his heyday and even today often is recognized as one of the greatest Golden Age mystery writers, yet he has languished out of print since the 1990s and has been largely ignored in academic works, outside of a fine biography by historian Douglas G. Greene.[8] And even though Michael Innes and Nicholas Blake wrote more in the “novel of manners” style of the Crime Queens, they too have unaccountably been much neglected in academic studies compared with the Crime Queens.
             Yet these men are comparatively fortunate (an additional male mystery writer, one who stands above mere genre history, is the great G.K. Chesterton, whose Father Brown detective short stories, many of which appeared during the Golden Age, are still well-known). Another group of British male detective novelists, notoriously dubbed the “Humdrums” in the 1970s by crime writer and critic Julian Symons[9] (this term was again used in regard to these writers by P.D. James in her 2009 survey), truly has been banished from histories of the British Golden Age detective novel, despite the fact that they all were important, popular figures in the mystery genre during the Golden Age. Although various authors have been attributed as belonging to this group, I look here at the six men I believe have been most strongly associated with it: Freeman Wills Crofts, R. Austin Freeman, Cecil John Charles Street (John Rhode/Miles Burton), Alfred Walter Stewart (J.J. Connington), G. D. H. Cole and Henry Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher (Henry Wade). Unlike Margery Allingham and Ngaio Marsh, all six of these writers were active over all (Crofts, Freeman) or most (Street, Connington, Cole, Wade) of the Golden Age and in 1930 became charter members of the Detection Club, an association of the finest British detective novelists.
             “Humdrum” Golden Age detective novelists have been disparaged with that word because ostensibly they cared only about the puzzle in their mystery works and nothing whatsoever about character, setting or theme. In actuality, this assertion is untrue about all these authors, particularly so in the case of G.D.H. Cole and Henry Wade. However, it is true of Freeman Wills Crofts, R. Austin Freeman, John Street and J.J. Connington that their greatest gifts as detective novelists were their technical skills, which placed them among the most popular British detective novelists of the Golden Age. Additionally, all these men had individual voices and made unique contributions to the mystery genre.

Freeman Wills Crofts (1879–1957)
           
             As mentioned above, appearing at the inception of the Golden Age (1920) with Agatha Christie’s The Mysterious Affair at Styles was another crime novel, Freeman Wills Crofts’s massive murder opus The Cask, which at the time was considered the more notable achievement of the two tales, surprising as this fact may seem to many today.
            While during his career as a detective novelist, which extended nearly forty years (from 1920 to 1957), no one who I am aware of ever dubbed Crofts (or any other man) a “Crime King”, the Anglo-Irish railway engineer turned novelist was from the early 1920s on acknowledged as the king of the “unbreakable alibi” mystery, where the murderer has an alibi for the crime that seems airtight, but nevertheless is ultimately punctured by the intrepid detective. The Cask, the first of Crofts’s unbreakable alibi tales, was remarkable in its day for both the complexity of its mystery and the clarity with which that mystery is investigated and explicated. It was also remarkably popular, selling nearly 100,000 copies by 1932 (presumably all hardcover in those days). Additional tales like The Ponson Case (1921), Sir John Magill’s Last Journey (1930), Mystery in the Channel (1931) and The Hog’s Back Mystery (1933) are, like The Cask, locational alibi stories of great ingenuity, although their mathematical flavour tends to be rather too dry for many in the modern-day mystery readership. However, Crofts was not a one-trick alibi pony as has often been suggested. Other clever devices flavour tales like The Groote Park Murder (1923), Inspector French’s Greatest Case (1924), Inspector French and the Starvel Tragedy (1927), The Sea Mystery (1928), Death on the Way (1932) and Crime at Guildford(1935). Additionally, Crofts was a notable exponent of the inverted mystery (where we see the murderer committing the crime and the question becomes how — or whether — he will be caught) in such works as The 12:30 from Croydon and Mystery on Southampton Water (both 1934).
             In contrast with Agatha Christie, whose signature investigator during the Golden Age was the dapper Belgian private detective Hercule Poirot, and her sisters in crime, Sayers, Allingham and Marsh, who all introduced as investigators charming detectives of exquisite aristocratic backgrounds, Crofts’s investigators, of whom Inspector (later Superintendent) French became the most important, were all plain (very plain) bourgeois coppers and their detailed doings in works like The Loss of the “Jane Vosper” (1936) arguably have a greater air of everyday realism, even though Crofts himself had no background in policework. (Marsh’s Roderick Alleyn was, rather improbably, a policeman too, but he otherwise bore quite a strong likeness to Sayers’s and Allingham’s oh-so-posh gents. Moreover, to interview servants below stairs while he hobnobbed with the smarter sets above, Alleyn fortunately had on hand, like Wimsey with his Bunter and Campion with his Lugg, an underling, one Sergeant Fox. With rather annoying preciosity, Alleyn often calls this poor man “Br’er Fox” and “my Foxkin”.)
             P.D. James has speculated that a great part of the appeal of mystery novels by Sayers, Allingham and Marsh lies in their sophisticated, aristocratic trappings, which she is sure attracted people living out drab middle class lives in the 1920s and 1930s (“travelling home to mortgaged metroland,” as she puts it).[10] No doubt they often did. Yet some readers (like Raymond Chandler, who famously despised the Crime Queens’ gentleman detectives)[11] preferred Crofts’s penny plain policemen and the author’s resolutely no-nonsense concentration on the mystery problem (interestingly, Crofts was one of the few British detective novelists even modestly praised by Chandler).[12]           
            An additional notable element of Crofts’s mystery fiction is the clear influence of the author’s religious value system. A devout low-church Anglican — he once politely proselytized a patently unenthusiastic Dorothy L. Sayers on behalf of his latest cause, the evangelical Oxford Group organization — Crofts increasingly emphasized religious themes in his work after the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s led him to question the morality of capitalism. Many of his later novels and stories are explicitly moralistic. The stories from the collections Murderers Make Mistakes (1947) and Many a Slip (1955) are parables on the folly of greed and the pursuit of self-interest, while one specific novel, Antidote to Venom (1938), deliberately takes the form of a conversion narrative. With keen insight the Congregationslist minister Erik Routley nearly forty years ago designated Crofts “the greatest Puritan of them of all” in his interesting but often overlooked book on the mystery genre, The Puritan Pleasures of the Detective Story (1972).
            Crofts’s early detective novels did much to create the rage for detective fiction in the first half of the 1920s. The complexity of the plots made his books especially appealing to intellectuals, many of whom had previously looked down on the “mystery thriller” as a rather low form of reading entertainment. Margaret Cole, wife of the prominent Socialist academic G.D.H. Cole, later recalled that her husband was drawn to writing his first detective novel, The Brooklyn Murders (1923), by reading the tales of Freeman Wills Crofts (Margaret Cole soon herself joined in the fun).[13] “Before his invention, mine eyes dazzle,” declared one intellectual critic, an Oxford graduate in the classics no less, of Freeman Wills Crofts.[14] High culture priest T. S. Eliot, an avid detective fiction reader in the 1920s, similarly held Freeman Wills Crofts in high esteem, classing him along with his somewhat similarly named brother in crime, R. Austin Freeman, as the greatest living detective novelists. Eliot explicitly graded both men above Agatha Christie (he did not mention Sayers).[15]

R. Austin Freeman (1862–1943)

             Though he is referenced in some genre surveys for works published before the advent of the Golden Age, R. Austin Freeman is another major male mystery writer active during the entire Golden Age who is much underappreciated today. While Freeman’s first detective novel, The Red Thumb Mark, appeared in 1907, well before the beginning of the Golden Age, Freeman, a contemporary of Arthur Conan Doyle, continued writing mystery fiction until the year before his death in 1943. Between 1922 and 1938, Freeman published fifteen detective novels and three collections of detective short stories, all detailing exploits of his once famous detective (and the greatest rival of Sherlock Holmes), medical jurist Dr. John Thorndyke (two more Thorndyke novels appeared in 1940 and 1942, outside the proper span of the Golden Age).
            R. Austin Freeman’s Dr. Thorndyke tales brought science and forensic medicine into the detective fiction genre in a masterful way (compared to Thorndyke, Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes is far less credible on scientific matters). P.D. James has pronounced that Golden Age detective novelists “had very little knowledge and even less apparent interest in forensic medicine”[16] — a far too sweeping statement, evidently based mostly on James’s assessments of the Crime Queens, that does a grave injustice to Freeman, perhaps the single most important progenitor of the use of forensic medicine in detective fiction. Writing in the mid-1950s of her admiration for Freeman’s detective novels and stories, novelist Sheila Kaye-Smith, indeed an avid fan of the man’s work, praised his “extraordinary lucidity and directness” as well as “the width of his interests, among which ... medicine predominated.”[17]
            Though some of Freeman’s best works, such as The Eye of Osiris (1911) and the short-story collections John Thorndyke’s Cases (1909) and The Singing Bone (1912), appeared before the commencement of the Golden Age, Freeman produced many superb Golden Age works, including the three later short story collections Dr. Thorndyke’s Casebook (1923), The Puzzle Lock (1925) and The Magic Casket (1927) and such novels as The Cat’s Eye (1923), The Shadow of the Wolf (1925), The D’Arblay Mystery (1926), As a Thief in the Night (1928), Mr. Pottermack Oversight (1930), The Penrose Mystery (1936) and The Stoneware Monkey (1938). Freeman’s story collection The Singing Bone has been credited with creating the inverted mystery and the later novels Wolf and Oversight are fine examples of that form.                         
            In his day R. Austin Freeman was an influential figure within the genre, referenced with some frequency by younger authors (including Agatha Christie and Dorothy L. Sayers), and producing two very notable disciples among the individuals who began writing mystery fiction in the 1920s: Cecil John Charles Street (who authored his genre work primarily under the names John Rhode and Miles Burton) and Alfred Walter Stewart (who wrote as J.J. Connington). Several of Street’s detective novels clearly were influenced by Freeman short stories and Connington explicitly pronounced Freeman the greatest living practitioner of the mystery form and the genre writer to whom he owed his greatest artistic debt.[18] Following in the footsteps of Freeman, Street and Connington both became popular and esteemed detective novelists during the Golden Age.

John Street (1884–1964)
            Under the punning pseudonym “John Rhode”, John Street began publishing mysteries in 1924. Forty years old at this time, Street had already lived an interesting life, with activities including employment as a stockholder and electrical engineer for an early English power company, service in World War One as a decorated army artillerist and a post-war stint as an intelligence officer in Ireland during the notorious Black and Tan War (he rose to the rank of Major and was often known afterwards as “Major Street”). In The Paddington Mystery (1925), Street introduced his most famous series detective, Dr. Lancelot Priestley, an acerbic, disputatious mathematics professor with a passion for solving problems and proving authority, be it in the form of rival professors or of the police, utterly, desperately wrong. With considerable technical ingenuity at his disposal, Street in his “John Rhode” guise won an admiring readership for mysteries with complex plots and ingenious murder methods. If Crofts was the Alibi King, Street was mystery’s Master of Murder Means. One impressed reviewer memorably dubbed Street “Public Brain Tester No. 1.”[19] Declared another: “Most serious detective-story connoisseurs would never miss reading any of his stories.”[20]
            Street’s mind for murder problems was so fecund that to help channel his creativity he introduced two other pseudonyms, the most important of which was the name “Miles Burton,” under which Street introduced Desmond Merrion, a somewhat flippant gentleman amateur detective more in the mold of Lord Peter Wimsey. This series, which started off with thrillers but soon settled down into classical detection, won considerable praise throughout the Golden Age as well. Under these two pseudonyms and another, minor, one, Cecil Waye, the awesomely prolific Street produced 143 crime novels (mostly tales of detection), over sixty of which appeared between 1924 and 1939.
            So many detective novels did Street author that it is challenging to list a comparatively small number of highlights, but certainly notable ones from the Golden Age are: The Ellerby Case (1927), a thrillerish tale which manages to credibly employ a purple hedgehog as an instrument of death; an early serial killer tale, The Murders in Praed Street (1928); The House on Tollard Ridge and The Davidson Case (both 1929); the witchcraft thriller The Secret of High Eldersham (1930); The Motor Rally Mystery, The Claverton Mystery and The Venner Crime (all from 1933); Poison for One and Shot at Dawn (both from 1934); The Corpse in the Car (1935) and Mystery at Olympia (both from 1935); a Crofts-like railway mystery, Death in the Tunnel (1936); another ingenious serial murderer tale, Death on the Board (1937); and two locked room mysteries, Invisible Weapons (1938) and Death Leaves No Card (1939). Significant Street titles appeared after the end of the Golden Age as well.
            In addition to the ingenuity of their plots, Street’s novels are striking for their informed depictions of the business world and their often admiring portrayals of scientifically and technically oriented individuals, whatever their social class. To some readers, Street’s tales offer a nice break from the sophisticated, arts-oriented milieus frequently found in works of the Crime Queens, particularly Sayers, Allingham and Marsh. Street himself came from a wealthy gentry background on his mother’s side of the family and enjoyed private means, yet he was fascinated with the capacity of applied science to improve human life and as a result sought useful employment as the electrical engineer of the power company in which he had invested. Throughout his life Street retained great respect for men willing to dirty their hands in beneficent physical endeavors.
  
J.J. Connington (1880–1947)
             Like John Street, Alfred Walter Stewart had a professional scientific background. A prominent chemistry professor originally from Scotland who taught for many years at Queen’s University, Belfast, Stewart began his career as a novelist with a notable apocalyptic science fiction thriller, Nordenholt’s Million (1923) — the first of the many books he would publish under the pseudonym “J.J. Connington.” Three years later, using the same pen name, Stewart launched what would become an eventual run of two dozen detective novels, nineteen of which appeared during the Golden Age. In seventeen of these tales Connington employed as his investigator Chief Constable Sir Clinton Driffield, a strikingly dry and acerbic detective reflective of the author’s own mordant world view. Connington tales are well-constructed works and, while they revolve less consistently around alibi-busting (Crofts) or clever murder means (Street), they nevertheless often involve interesting points of science. By 1927, no less a critic than T. S. Eliot welcomed Connington to “the front rank of detective story writers.”[21] Indicative of the intellectual respectability of this author within the mystery field, a 1929 reviewer of Connington’s The Case with Nine Solutions declared that the author’s “particular strength lies in his respect for the reader’s intelligence....piece after piece [of the solution to the mystery] is added till the reader shuts the book with a mind satisfied and replete.”[22]
            Besides the much-praised The Case with Nine Solutions, other notable Connington Golden Age murder tales that might be mentioned are: Murder in the Maze (1927); The Sweepstake Murders (1931); The Castleford Conundrum (1932); The Ha-Ha Case (1934); In Whose Dim Shadow (1935) and A Minor Operation (1937). Additionally, Connington’s apocalyptic sci-fi novel, Nordenholt’s Million, offers a remarkably chilling read even today (arguably more so).

            The two remaining men most often classified as “humdrum” detective novelists, G.D.H. Cole and Henry Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher (Henry Wade), are so classified without sufficient foundation in my view. G.D.H. Cole quickly evolved into more of a crime fiction satirist, while Henry Wade followed down Dorothy L. Sayers’s path by trying to transform the detective story into a novel of serious purpose, an effort for which he is grievously underacknowledged.

G. D. H. Cole (1889–1959)
             Though he was less technically sophisticated a detective novelist than Crofts, Freeman, Street or Connington, G.D.H. Cole became another prominent British mystery writer in the 1920s. Inspired by the first three detective novels of Crofts, Cole as mentioned above published his own such tale, The Brooklyn Murders, essentially a Crofts pastiche, in 1923. Cole was an Oxford professor and one of England’s most important and active Socialist intellectuals over four decades (1920s–1950s), and the writing of detective novels became a minor (if fairly lucrative) pastime for him as well as his wife, the Socialist writer Margaret Cole.
            G.D.H. Cole would write eighteen detective novels, all but two of which appeared in the traditionally defined Golden Age period (Margaret Cole herself separately wrote ten tales; yet even though the two actually composed their mystery novels separately, after The Brooklyn Murders both their names were signed to each mystery and the husband and wife today are still referred to as co-authors of all the books after the first). G.D.H. Cole’s primary contribution to the field of detective fiction (and that of his wife) was bringing to the detective novel a satirical touch, often influenced by a leftist world view. In books like The Death of a Millionaire (1925), The Blatchington Tangle (1926), Big Business Murder (1935) and Murder at the Munition Works (1940, which falls just outside the traditionally delineated Golden Age period), Cole launches squibs at the conservative political and business establishments, while in other books he pokes fun at country gentry (The Affair at Aliquid, 1933), batters the bourgeoisie (The Brothers Sackville, 1936), annoys academia (Disgrace to the College, 1937) and ridicules the Anglican Church (Double Blackmail, 1939).
            G.D.H. Cole’s most prominent series detective, the policeman Superintendent Wilson, has been compared, naturally enough, to Freeman Wills Crofts’s Inspector French, though it is made clear in the Cole mysteries that Wilson shares his creator’s Socialist sympathies (indeed, Wilson briefly resigns from the police after he learns of unrebuked corruption in high places in The Death of a Millionaire). Reviewers of a rather different ideological stripe from Cole could be offended by the bluntly satirical tone the writer adopted in his genre tales. In her Sunday Times review of Cole’s The Affair at Aliquid, for example, Dorothy L. Sayers complained of the tale that “the mirth is coarse and commonplace, the satire clumsy and brutal.” Lectured Sayers: “One must both know and love these bishops, butlers, and noblemen if one’s caricature of their foibles is to be anything more than an ill-bred grin through a horse-collar.” Sayers pronounced that “only one man living” — P.G. Wodehouse — could produce satire of the aristocracy without giving “offence”.[23] Despite such criticism, however, Cole’s tales often met with high praise in diverse critical corners. One prominent (and left-wing) mystery reviewer, for example, deemed The Brothers Sackville “brilliant in many ways, full of amusing characters and neat situations.”[24]
  

Henry Wade (1887–1969)
             Most all the mystery novels of Crofts, Freeman, Street, Connington and Cole were published in the United States as well as Great Britain, indicating that despite any perceived Britishness (the methodical detection of the first four men and the satire of the latter) they were able to find an American audience between the wars. The one man so far undiscussed, Henry Wade, had a less successful record of American publication, confounding as he did expectations of what a Golden Age British mystery writer should be. Even today, Wade continues to confound those expectations, resulting in a greatly undeserved neglect of his work. While much praise is heaped on the Crime Queens Sayers, Allingham and Marsh for helping to transform the detective story into, as P. D. James has put it, novels of “social realism and serious purpose” and writers of academic monographs weightily analyze their books for their treatments of issues related to gender, class and race, Henry Wade, whose own genre novels came to have as much “social realism and serious purpose” as any of those by the Crime Queens, bafflingly remains ignored. It may well be the case that Wade’s novels became too real and too serious for modern readers, schooled to expect from Golden Age detective stories the lighter novel of manners style of the Crime Queens.
            To some extent, Henry Wade’s true name, Henry Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher, and his title, baronet, have probably hindered any attempt to rehabilitate his literary reputation. After all, so the thought might run, what could a baronet with a hyphenated handle have known about “social realism and serious purpose”? Yet in truth Wade was not some feckless, idle aristocrat, but a man who had served his country with distinction in World War One, suffering two wounds and receiving the French Croix de Guerre and the Distinguished Service Order, afterward returning home and becoming extensively involved in county administration in Buckinghamshire. Unlike most Golden Age British mystery writers who, however impeccably of aristocratic lineage their fictional detectives may have been, themselves came of solidly bourgeois origins, Wade was truly of the gentry and knew county ways down to the ground. Very few of Wade’s contemporaries wrote with his authority on country gentry, local politics and the police.
             Like his own favorite detective novelist, Dorothy L. Sayers, Wade in his own writing career moved away from writing “mere puzzles” toward crime novels in the modern sense, i.e., novels using murder to illustrate, in a serious way, character, setting and theme. However, from his very first novel, The Verdict of You All (1926), the author showed considerable originality in conveying a decidedly unromantic view of life, one influenced by his experience of the madness of World War One and the conflict’s unsatisfactory outcome. In his writing Wade evinces a deeply pessimistic vision of the world, a vision that tends only to darken over the years (ironically, the modern crime writer Henry Wade most resembles is P.D. James, who apparently has never read him). Wade is especially notable for his ability to face without flinching failings in his own class that were leading irrevocably to a drastic diminishment of its power. While the Crime Queens, particularly Sayers, Allingham and Marsh, have with some justification been accused of a tendency to romanticize the landed gentry, Wade knew his own people too well to do that.
             Notable early books conveying Wade’s ironic, often pessimistic, view of life that are also good puzzles are The Missing Partners (1928), The Duke of York’s Steps (1929), The Dying Alderman (1930) and No Friendly Drop (1931). Over the course of the 1930s, Wade downplayed the puzzle in favor of treatments of character, setting and theme. Two of his best works from this decade in the “crime novel” vein are Mist on the Saltings (1933) and The High Sheriff (1937), both essentially tragedies. Also of the first order is Heir Presumptive (1935), an inverted tale in Wade’s most darkly ironic style that depicts an amoral man bumping off the relatives standing in the way of his attainment of a baronetcy, and Bury Him Darkly (1936), a pioneering “police procedural” (a tale portraying realistic police investigation of crime). Wade’s best police procedural (and one of his finest works), Lonely Magdalen (1940), stands just outside the traditionally delineated Golden Age period. Wade also wrote some fine short crime tales, including an interesting series about a common policeman that he gathered into the collection Here Comes the Copper (1938). His other story collection, Policeman’s Lot (1933), is more a mixed bag, but is still worth noting.
            People interested in the true, surpassingly rich and varied, history of the Golden Age (and not merely the stripped-down version constructed in many modern genre studies), as well as those who just like a good mystery, are advised to seek out some of Great Britain’s forgotten Kings of Crime. Copyrights have lapsed on many R. Austin Freeman titles and these are downloadable on the internet or available through admittedly rather obscure publishers. Additionally, works by Freeman Wills Crofts are being reprinted by James Prichard’s nascent concern, Langtail Press (interestingly, Prichard is a great-grandson of Agatha Christie).[25] Yet the many genre works by Street, Connington, Cole and Wade remain, quite unjustly, out of print. And none of these authors are yet available, as are the Crime Queens and the Hardboiled Boys, in what might be termed prestige editions, which are more likely to catch the eyes of potential readers, even in the internet age.
             While there is some evidence on the internet of a rekindled interest in the deposed Crime Kings on the part of small publishing concerns, academic publishers still seem loath to embrace scholarly studies of these authors, even though these authors have merit in themselves and also provide us with a much more informed understanding of mystery genre history. Thus we are faced with an unfortunate vicious circle, where unjustly neglected British Golden Age detective novelists (often, though certainly not always, male) must remain unjustly neglected in the future because they have been unjustly neglected in the past; and where we will continue to be told that four particular British women — the Crime Queens — dominated the entire Golden Age of British detective fiction.

Notes
1.   Lucy Sussex: Women Writers and Detectives in Nineteenth-Century Crime Fiction: The Mothers of the Mystery Genre (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), ix.
2.   Sally Munt: Murder by the Book? Feminism and the Crime Novel (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), page 7.
3    Lee Horsley: Twentieth-Century Crime Fiction (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), page 38. Reviewed in CADS 49 (April, 2006)
4.   Erin A. Smith: Hard-Boiled: Working-Class Readers and Pulp Magazines (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2000), page 39.
5.   P.D. James: Talking about Detective Fiction (Oxford: Bodlean Library, 2009; US: Knopf, 2009). Reviewed in CADS 57 (December, 2009).
6.   Saturday Review of Literature 6 (May 4, 1929).
7.   For more on Knox and his “Rules” see Liz Gilbey: “The Monsignor and His Ten Commandments” in CADS 54 (July, 2008).
8.   Douglas G. Greene: John Dickson Carr, The Man Who Explained Miracles (US: Otto Penzler Books, 1995).
9.   In Bloody Murder (Faber & Faber, 1972; US: as Mortal Consequences, Harper 1972).
10. Talking about Detective Fiction, page 118.
11. For example “Not long ago I made an effort to reread Dorothy Sayers’ Gaudy Night. God,what sycophantic drivel. A whole clutch of lady dons at an Oxford college all in a flutter to know about Lord Peter Wimsey and to know about the plot of Harriet Vane’s latest mystery story. How silly can you get?”; or, “I don’t deny the mystery writer the privilege of making his detective any sort of a person he wants him to be — a poet, philosopher, student of ceramics or Egyptology, or a master of all the sciences like Dr. Thorndyke. What I don’t seem to cotton to is the affectation of gentility which does not belong to the job and which is in effect a subconscious expression of snobbery, the kind of thing that reached its high-water mark in Dorothy Sayers.”. In letters to James Sandoe reproduced in Frank MacShane (ed.): Selected Letters of Raymond Chandler (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981; UK: Jonathan Cape, 1981), pages 291 and 297.
12. Chandler describes Crofts as “the soundest builer of them all when he doesn’t get too fancy” in “The Simple Art of Murder” first published in The Atlantic Monthly (December, 1944).
13. G.D.H. and Margaret Cole: “Meet Superintendent Wilson” in Meet the Detective (Allen & Unwin, 1935; US: Telegraph Press, 1935), page 108.
14. Ivor Brown in the Observer, reprinted in Freeman Wills Crofts: Crime at Guildford (London: Collins, 1935).
15. The Criterion 8 (September 1928): page 175.
16. P.D. James: Time to Be in Earnest: A Fragment of Autobiography (Faber & Faber, 1999), page 33.
17. Sheila Kaye-Smith: All the Books of My Life: A Bibliobiography (London: Cassell, 1956), page 186.
18. From a letter written by Stewart.
19. E.R. Punshon in the Manchester Guardian (from a review of Death on the Board), reprinted in John Rhode: Death in the Hopfields (London: Collins, 1937).
20. “Dr. Watson” in the Manchester Evening Chronicle (from a review of Death in the Tunnel), reprinted in Miles Burton: Death at Low Tide (London: Collins, 1938).
21. The Monthly Criterion, 6 (November 1927), page 568.
22. From an unattributed review in the Times Literary Supplement reprinted in Connington: The Eye in the Museum (London: Gollancz, 1929).
23. From the Sunday Times, 17 September 1933.
24. Ralph Partridge in the New Statesman and Nation, 9 January 1936, page 54.
25  Six titles by Crofts are currently available from Langtail Press; see www.langtailpress.com for details.